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    Design for Advanced Manufacturing: Technologies and Processes

    LaRoux K. Gillespie|2017.02.20

    Introduction
    Part 1 Manufacturing with Lasers
    1.1 Overview of Laser Manufacturing Processes
    Reference
    1.2 Laser Cutting
    Materials
    Equipment Capabilities
    Design Considerations
    1.3 Laser Surface Texturing
    Process Physics
    Why Use Laser Texturing?
    Design Considerations
    Material Suitability
    Laser versus Electron Beam
    Continuous versus Pulsed Operation
    Surface Topography
    Polishing Limitations
    Structuring Limitations
    Cost
    References
    1.4 Laser Ablation for Cleaning, Decoating, and Surface Preparation
    Basic Science of Laser Ablation
    Surface Preparation in Manufacturing
    Implementation Considerations
    Applications Where Laser Ablation Works Best
    Applications Where Laser Ablation May or May Not Bring Important Benefits
    Manual versus Robotic Laser Ablation
    Precautions and Safety
    1.5 Laser Hardening
    Process
    Applicable Lasers
    Laser Hardening Materials
    Grain Size
    Hardening Process Comparisons
    Application Examples
    Laser Hardening of Dies and Tooling
    Laser Hardening of Gears
    Laser Hardening of Machine Parts
    Laser Hardening of Cast Iron
    References
    1.6 Laser Welding of Metals
    Applications
    Equipment
    Materials
    Design Considerations
    References
    1.7 Laser Welding of Plastics
    Contour Welding
    Simultaneous
    Quasi-Simultaneous
    Mask
    Line
    Unique Variations
    Applications
    Materials Selection
    Joint Design
    Design Considerations
    References
    1.8 Designing for Laser Soldering
    The Process
    Typical Characteristics and Applications
    Economics
    Suitable Materials
    Design Recommendations
    Through-Hole Pad Design
    Lap Joint Pad Design
    Connector Selection
    Fixturing
    Lead-to-Hole Ratio
    1.9 Design for Laser Cladding
    The Laser Cladding Process
    Laser Cladding and Conventional Welding
    Laser Cladding with Powder versus Wire
    Laser Cladding with Powder
    Laser Cladding with Wire
    Applications and Cladding Variables
    Filler Materials
    Laser Cladding Production Performance
    1.10 Laser Marking and Engraving
    Laser Marking
    Materials That Can Be Marked
    Selecting a Laser
    Marking Metals
    Anneal Marking
    Engraving and Etching
    Plastic, Glass, Coated, and Paper Marking
    Marking on Painted Surfaces
    1.11 Laser-Assisted Forming
    Laser Forming
    Laser-Assisted Forming
    Laser-Assisted Micro Forming
    References
    1.12 Laser Peening
    Laser Peening Process
    Typical Characteristics and Applications
    Residual Stress Magnitude and Depth
    Residual Stress Stability
    Surface Roughness Effects
    Material Properties
    Compensating Stresses and Deformation
    Common Applications
    Economics
    General Process Design Considerations
    Design Methodology
    Pattern Size and Location
    Intensity and Coverage
    Suitable Materials
    Detailed Design Considerations
    Variations Based on Supplier
    Intensity and Coverage Specification
    Patch Size and Location on Drawings
    Processing of Thin Sections and Shot Orders
    Minimum Thickness
    Part 2 Manufacturing with Additive Processes
    2.1 Overview of Additive Manufacturing Processes
    Overview of Primary Additive Manufacturing Technologies
    General Design Considerations for Additive Manufacturing
    References
    2.2 Binder Jetting
    The Process and Materials
    Typical Characteristics and Applications
    As Bonded
    Lightly Sintered
    Sintered and Infiltrated
    Highly Sintered
    Advantages of Binder Jetting
    Economics
    General Design Considerations
    Suitable Materials
    Detailed Design Considerations
    Wall Thickness
    Uniform Wall Thickness
    Inside Edges
    Interior Holes
    Part Connections
    2.3 Directed Energy Deposition
    Metals
    Applications
    Design Issues
    References
    2.4 Material Extrusion
    Applications
    Considerations
    References
    2.5 Designing for Material Jetting Additive Processes
    Machines
    Materials
    Base Materials
    Composite Materials
    Support Materials
    Process Variable Impact on Part Quality
    Minimum Feature Size and Accuracy
    Surface Roughness
    Stair-Stepping
    Process Variable Impact on Material Properties
    Tensile Properties
    Fatigue Properties
    Post-Processing Impact on Design Feasibility
    Internal Cavities
    Support Removal from Channels
    Feature Survivability
    General Guidelines for Material Jetting
    References
    2.6 Design for Powder Bed Fusion of Polymer Parts
    Machines
    Materials
    The Influence of Process Variables on Part Properties
    Mechanical Properties of Polymer Parts
    Dimensioning Polymer Parts
    General Design Considerations for Polymer Powder Bed Fusion
    References
    2.7 Design for Powder Bed Fusion of Metal Parts
    Machines
    Materials
    Process Planning
    Time and Cost Considerations
    Quality Considerations
    Mechanical Properties of Parts
    Supporting Infrastructure
    References
    2.8 Polymer Laminate Technology
    2.9 Accumulative Roll Bonding
    The Process
    Process Steps
    ARB Applications
    Limitations of the Process
    Comparison of the Composite Material with Single-Material Sheet
    2.10 Ultrasonic Lamination Technology
    The Process
    Characteristics and Applications
    Dissimilar Metals
    Embedding
    Complicated Geometry
    Economics
    Materials Suitable to This Process
    Specific Design Recommendations
    2.11 Vat Photopolymerization: An Additive Process
    The Process
    Technology and Process Controls
    Vat Photopolymerization: Systems
    Geometries and Tolerances
    Applications
    Starting a Project
    2.12 Hybrid Additive Process
    The Process
    Multiple Additive Processes on a Common Platform
    Additive Plus Subtractive
    Additive Plus Assembly Process on a Common Platform
    Miscellaneous Adaptations
    Electroforming over Stereolithography
    Design Considerations
    Part 3 Manufacturing Micro Parts and Micro Features
    3.1 Micro Manufacturing: An Overview
    Definition of “Micro Manufacturing”
    Applications of Micro Manufacturing
    Micro versus Conventional Manufacturing
    Micro Machines and Machines for Micro Work
    Processes
    Materials
    Research
    Seeing and Measuring
    Testing and Acceptance
    People
    Facilities
    Services
    Software
    Design
    3.2 Micro Mechanical Drilling
    Introduction
    Defining the Limits
    Characteristics of Good Micro Drills
    Starting the Hole
    Operating Parameters
    Machine Tool Requirements
    3.3 Micro Milling
    Basic Limitations
    Materials Machined
    Cutters
    Coatings
    Applications
    Machines
    Design Issues
    References
    3.4 Designing for the Swiss Screw Machine
    Introduction
    Process
    Characteristics
    Economics
    Materials
    Design Issues
    3.5 Designing for Turning Micro Parts
    Micro Lathes
    Micro Lathe Capabilities for Micro- and Nano-Size Products—Research-Level Capabilities
    Cutting Tool Challenges
    Micro and Nano Turned Materials
    References
    3.6 Design Considerations for Laser Micro Machining
    Laser Details
    Product Considerations
    Laser Software Considerations
    Examples of Micro Machining
    3.7 Micro Electrical Discharge Machining
    Solid Electrode EDM
    Wire Electrical Discharge Machining
    Wire Electrical Discharge Grinding
    Electrochemical Discharge Machining
    Materials Machined
    Equipment
    Applications
    Design Considerations
    References
    3.8 Precision Electrochemical Micro Machining
    The Process and Capabilities
    Process Principles
    Electrolyte Type and Concentration
    PECM System
    Electrochemical Tooling
    Cathode Oscillation
    Electrolyte Flow
    Power Supply
    PECM Equipment
    Process Capabilities
    Some Typical Examples of PECM Parts
    Example 1: Rotary Shaver Head
    Example 2: High-Precision Gears
    Example 3: Diesel Valve Plates
    Summary
    3.9 Electrochemical Micro Deburring
    The Process
    Process Principles
    Tooling—Cathode and Anode Fixtures
    Anode (Workpiece)
    Cathode (Tool)
    Fixtures
    Electrolyte
    Process Capabilities
    Equipment
    ECD Examples
    ECD Example 1: Aluminum Manifold
    ECD Example 2: Gear-Edge Deburring
    ECD Example 3: Air Bag Housing
    Summary
    3.10 Electrochemical Discharge Machining
    Introduction
    Working Principle of ECDM
    Material Removal Modes in ECDM
    Process Characteristics of ECDM
    Types of ECDM
    Chemical Reactions in ECDM
    Application Areas in ECDM
    Capabilities of ECDM
    References
    3.11 Micro Wire Electrical Discharge Grinding
    References
    3.12 Electron Beam Drilling
    Physical Part Size Limitations
    Technology Applications
    3.13 Electron Beam Polishing
    3.14 Designing for Chemical Mechanical Polishing
    The Process
    Application of the Process
    Enhanced Manufacturability of MST
    Higher-Order CMP Effects
    CMP Limitations
    Materials
    Critical Process Parameters for the Designer
    Acknowledgments
    Reference
    3.15 Micro Ultrasonic Machining
    USM Shapes and Tools
    Workpiece Materials
    Equipment
    Process Variations
    References
    3.16 Cylindrical Micro Grinding
    Process
    Characteristics and Applications
    Micro Size
    Materials
    Tolerances
    Design Recommendations
    Economics of Micro Grinding
    3.17 Grinding with Mechanical Micro Tools
    Introduction
    Making the Tools
    Machines for Micro Grinding
    Capabilities of the Process
    Other Processes
    References
    3.18 Micro Coining
    References
    3.19 Magnetic Abrasive Finishing
    The Magnetic Abrasive Finishing Process
    Characteristics and Applications of the Resulting Product
    Materials Suitable to MAF
    Specific Design Recommendations
    References
    3.20 Designing for Micro Abrasive Waterjet Machining
    The Process
    Relationship to Other Micro Cutting Methods
    Abrasive Waterjet Generation and Cutting
    Micro Abrasive Waterjet Machining Centers
    Workpiece Holding
    Human Machine Interface and Control System
    Comprehensive CAM Software
    Ideal Job Shop Micro Machining Tool
    Future Developments
    3.21 Photochemical Machining for Micro Parts
    Process and Technology
    Characteristics, Applications, and Limitations of the Resulting Product
    Economics
    Materials Suitable for This Process
    Specific Design Recommendations and Issues
    3.22 Micro Molding Overview
    Applications for Micro Molded Parts
    Types of Micro Molding
    Small, Miniature, and Micro
    Two-Shot Micro Molding
    Insert Micro Molding
    Lead Frame Micro Molding
    Micro Overmolding
    Enhancing Success in Micro Molding
    Geometry and Material Selection
    Materials
    Part Size
    Feature Size
    Challenges
    Quality and Critical Features
    3.23 Micro Metal Powder Injection Molding
    Micro MIM Materials
    Parts and Features
    Equipment
    Design Considerations
    References
    3.24 Micro Stamping
    The Impact of Part Design
    Materials
    Design
    References
    3.25 Designing for Micro Hot Embossing
    The Process
    Fabrication of Molds for Micro Hot Embossing
    Micro Hot Embossing of Thermoplastics
    Typical Applications
    Materials Suitable to This Process
    Materials for Mold/Stamp Fabrication
    Thermoplastic Materials for Hot Embossing
    Production Quantities
    Equipment
    Design Recommendations
    Layout Design
    Process Design
    Process Recommendations
    3.26 Roll-to-Roll Micro Embossing
    Thermal Processes
    Cold Embossing
    UV Resist-Based Fabrication
    Equipment
    References
    3.27 Laser-Assisted Micro Fabrication
    Laser-Assisted Cutting and Grinding
    Laser-Assisted Forming
    Laser-Assisted Deep Drawing
    Laser-Assisted Hot Embossing
    Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition
    Pulsed Laser Deposition
    Laser Chemical Etching
    Laser-Enhanced Electroplating
    Laser-Based Combined Annealing and Texturing
    3D Printing Laser Finishing
    Laser-Assisted Ablation + Printing
    References
    3.28 Micro Extrusion
    Process
    Processing Equipment
    Micro Extruded Sizes
    Shapes
    Materials
    Product Cross Sections
    Longitudinal Sections
    Surfaces
    Economics
    3.29 Chemical Vapor Deposition
    Materials Deposited
    3.30 Magnetorheological Finishing
    References
    3.31 Micro Wire Products
    Processes
    Materials
    Applications
    Design Considerations
    References
    3.32 Micro Electroforming
    Laser-Evolved Electroforming (LEEF)
    Materials
    Emerging Aspects
    Design Considerations
    References
    3.33 Manufacturing with LIGA
    LIGA Materials
    LIGA Products
    Alternative LIGA Approaches
    Design Restraints
    References
    3.34 Deburring Micro Parts
    Basic Issues
    Design Issues
    Preventing Burrs
    Minimizing Burrs
    Deburring Processes for Micro Features
    Magnetic Abrasive Finishing
    Ultrasonic Deburring
    Electrochemical Deburring
    Electropolishing
    Electrical Discharge Deburring
    Flat Lapping
    Micro Blasting (Abrasive Micro Jet Machining)
    Centrifugal Barrel Deburring
    Coining
    Hot Embossing
    Plasma Glow Deburring
    Laser Deburring
    Manual Deburring
    Chlorine Gas Deburring
    Processes Not Usually Considered as Deburring Processes
    Measuring Micro Burrs
    The Optimum Approach
    References
    3.35 Electrospinning
    Fiber Characteristics
    Co-electrospinning
    Nanofiber Applications
    Equipment
    3.36 Designing for Resistance Welding Micro Parts
    Resistance Welding Basics
    Resistance Welding for Micro Joining Small Parts
    Micro Joining Design Challenges
    Precise Control Is the Key to Meeting Micro Joining Challenges
    Electrode Design and Tooling
    Three Areas to Consider When Designing Micro Parts for Resistance Welding
    Material Properties
    Surface Conditions
    Physical Part Design
    Cycle Times
    Heat Balance and Specific Design Recommendations
    Advances in Micro Resistance Welding Technology on the Horizon
    Summary
    3.37 Practical Guide to Laser Micro Welding
    Introduction
    Laser Micro Welding Basics
    Laser Types for Micro Welding
    Selecting the Correct Material for Weldability and Functionality—Metals
    Welding Dissimilar Metals
    Metal Plating Affects Welding Process
    Selecting the Correct Material for Weldability and Functionality—Plastics
    Joint Design, Part Tolerances, and Fit-up
    Steps for Ensuring an Optimal Laser Micro Welding Process
    3.38 Micro Electron Beam Welding
    3.39 Micro Welding for Assembly and Rapid Turnaround Changes
    Micro TIG versus Laser
    Prototyping and Iterative Design
    3.40 Ultrasonic Micro Welding
    Process
    Polymer Parts
    Metal Joining
    Joining Metals to Nonmetals
    Key Design Considerations
    References
    3.41 Micro Adhesive Bonding
    Process
    Adhesive Bonding
    Equipment
    Hot Melt Approaches
    UV Curable Adhesives
    Additional Design Thoughts
    References
    3.42 Micro Blasting
    Abrasives
    Nozzles
    Key Variables
    Important Notes
    Controlled Erosion Overview
    Materials Suitable to the Controlled Erosion Process
    Abrasive Characteristics
    Appropriate Applications: Masking versus Direct Machining
    Selective Cleaning
    Materials Suitable to Cleaning
    Brittle Coating Removal: CIGS from Molybdenum
    Precision Deburring
    Part Material and Abrasive Selection
    Manual versus Automation
    Surface Texturing
    Ra or Sa
    Coverage
    Surface Area Ratio
    Shape
    Materials Suitable to the Process
    Abrasive Characteristics
    Important Notes
    Example: Dental Implants
    3.43 Micro Part Inspection
    Handling
    Inspection Approaches
    Touch Probing
    Hard Gaging
    Microscopes
    Optical Comparators
    White Light Systems
    Laser Scanners
    Video Systems
    Digital X-Ray
    CT Scanning
    Other Approaches
    Environment
    Validating the Process Rather Than the Product
    References
    3.44 Advanced Additive Manufacturing: The MICA Freeform Process
    MICA Freeform Process
    Capabilities of the MICA Freeform Process
    Unique Features
    Precision Holes
    Micro Channels
    Micro Bosses and Ribs
    Undercuts
    Assemblies and Mechanisms
    Materials
    Design Recommendations
    When to Use MICA Freeform
    3.45 Micro Stereolithography
    Applications
    References
    3.46 Micro Electromechanical Systems
    MEMS Manufacture
    Designing for MEMS
    Design for MEMS Actuation
    Sensors
    What a New Designer Should Do When MEMS Design Seems Applicable
    Constraints
    References
    3.47 Origami Micro Fabrication
    State of the Art
    Manufacturing Approaches
    Simple Shape Changes
    Complex Changes and Abilities
    Design to Accomplish Change
    References
    3.48 Ion Beam Machining
    Design Freedom
    References
    3.49 Dip-Pen/Polymer-Pen Technology
    References
    3.50 Capillary Forming
    Simple Capillary Action
    Carbon Nanotube Process
    Design Considerations
    References
    3.51 Handling Micro Parts
    Handling Solutions
    Manual Approaches
    Automated Mechanical Approaches
    Magnetics
    Electrostatics
    Surface Tension
    Vacuum and Air Pressure
    Adhesives
    Thermal Approaches
    Lasers
    Bernoulli Effect
    Sonics Approaches
    Acoustic Approaches
    Vibratory Approaches
    Fixturing
    Biological Processes
    Specific Design Considerations
    References
    3.52 Assembly of Micro Parts
    Positioning
    Joining
    Contamination
    Pop-Up Design
    Self-Assembly
    Biomedical Issues
    Shape Memory Alloys
    References
    Index

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